Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Nature of Operations||
Nature of Operations
LM Funding America, Inc. (“we”, “our”, “LMFA” or the “Company”) was formed as a Delaware corporation on April 20, 2015. LMFA was formed for the purpose of completing a public offering and related transactions in order to carry on the business of LM Funding, LLC and its subsidiaries (the “Predecessor”). LMFA is the sole member of LM Funding, LLC and operates and controls all of its businesses and affairs.
LM Funding, LLC, a Florida limited liability company organized in January 2008 under the terms of an Operating Agreement effective January 8, 2008 as amended, had two members: BRR Holding, LLC and CGR 63, LLC. The members contributed their equity interest to LMFA prior to the closing of its initial public offering.
The Company created two subsidiaries, LMFA Financing LLC on November 21, 2020 and LMFAO Sponsor LLC on October 29, 2020. LMFAO Sponsor LLC created a majority owned subsidiary LMF Acquisition Opportunities Inc. on October 29, 2020.
We are a specialty finance company that provides funding to nonprofit community associations primarily located in the state of Florida. We offer incorporated nonprofit community associations, which we refer to as “Associations,” a variety of financial products customized to each Association’s financial needs. Our original product offering consists of providing funding to Associations by purchasing their rights under delinquent accounts that are selected by the Associations arising from unpaid Association assessments. Historically, we provided funding against such delinquent accounts, which we refer to as “Accounts,” in exchange for a portion of the proceeds collected by the Associations from the account debtors on the Accounts. In addition to our original product offering, we have started purchasing Accounts on varying terms tailored to suit each Association’s financial needs, including under our New Neighbor Guaranty™ program.
During 2020, we began exploring other specialty finance business opportunities that are complementary to or that can leverage our historical business.
Specialty Finance Company
We purchase an Association’s right to receive a portion of the Association’s collected proceeds from owners that are not paying their assessments. After taking assignment of an Association’s right to receive a portion of the Association’s proceeds from the collection of delinquent assessments, we engage law firms to perform collection work on a deferred billing basis wherein the law firms receive payment upon collection from the account debtors or a predetermined contracted amount if payment from account debtors is less than legal fees and costs owed. Under this business model, we typically fund an amount equal to or less than the statutory minimum an Association could recover on a delinquent account for each Account, which we refer to as the “Super Lien Amount”. Upon collection of an Account, the law firm working on the Account, on behalf of the Association, generally distributes to us the funded amount, interest, and administrative late fees, with the law firm retaining legal fees and costs collected, and the Association retaining the balance of the collection. In connection with this line of business, we have developed proprietary software for servicing Accounts, which we believe enables law firms to service Accounts efficiently and profitably.
Under our New Neighbor Guaranty program, an Association will generally assign substantially all of its outstanding indebtedness and accruals on its delinquent units to us in exchange for payment by us of monthly dues on each delinquent unit. This simultaneously eliminates a substantial portion of the Association’s balance sheet bad debts and assists the Association to meet its budget by receiving guaranteed monthly payments on its delinquent units and relieving the Association from paying legal fees and costs to collect its bad debts. We believe that the combined features of the program enhance the value of the underlying real estate in an Association and the value of an Association’s delinquent receivables.
Because we acquire and collect on the delinquent receivables of Associations, the Account debtors are third parties about whom we have little or no information. Therefore, we cannot predict when any given Account will be paid off or how much it will yield. In assessing the risk of purchasing Accounts, we review the property values of the underlying units, the governing documents of the relevant Association, and the total number of delinquent receivables held by the Association.
Specialty Finance Products
Our original product relies upon Florida statutory provisions that effectively protect the principal amount invested by us in each Account. In particular, Section 718.116(1), Florida Statutes, makes purchasers and sellers of a unit in an Association jointly and
severally liable for all past due assessments, interest, late fees, legal fees, and costs payable to the Association. As discussed above, the Florida Statutes grants to Associations a so-called “super lien”, which is a category of lien that is given a statutorily higher priority than all other types of liens other than property tax liens. The amount of the Association’s priority over a first mortgage holder that takes title to a property through foreclosure (or deed in lieu), referred to as the Super Lien Amount, is limited to twelve months’ past due assessments or, if less, one percent (1.0%) of the original mortgage amount. Under our contracts with Associations for our original product, we pay Associations an amount up to the Super Lien Amount for the right to receive all collected interest and late fees on Accounts purchased from the Associations.
The Statutes specify that the rate of interest an association (or its assignor) may charge on delinquent assessments is equal to the rate set forth in the association’s declaration or bylaws. In Florida if a rate is not specified, the statutory rate is equal to 18% but may not exceed the maximum rate allowed by law. Similarly, the Statutes in Florida also stipulate that administrative late fees cannot be charged on delinquent assessments unless so provided by the association’s declaration or bylaws and may not exceed the greater of $25 or 5% of each delinquent assessment.
In other states in which we have offered our original product, which are currently only in Washington, Colorado and Illinois, we rely on statutes that we believe are similar to the above-described Florida statutes in relevant respects.
New Neighbor Guaranty
In 2012, we developed a new product, the New Neighbor Guaranty, wherein an Association assigns substantially all of its outstanding indebtedness and accruals on its delinquent units to us in exchange for payments in an amount equal to the regular ongoing monthly or quarterly assessments for delinquent units when those amounts would be due to the Association. We assume both the payment and collection obligations for these assigned Accounts under this product. This simultaneously eliminates an Association’s balance sheet bad debts and assists the Association to meet its budget by receiving guaranteed assessment payments on its delinquent units and relieving the Association from paying legal fees and costs to collect its bad debts. We believe that the combined features of the product enhance the value of the underlying real estate in an Association and the value of an Association’s delinquent receivables.
Before we implement the New Neighbor Guaranty program for an Association typically asks us to conduct a review of its accounts receivable. After we have conducted the review, we inform the Association which Accounts we are willing to purchase and the terms of such purchase. Once we implement the New Neighbor Guaranty program, we begin making scheduled payments to the Association on the Accounts as if the Association had non-delinquent residents occupying the units underlying the Accounts. Our New Neighbor Guaranty contracts typically allow us to retain all collection proceeds on each Account other than special assessments and accelerated assessment balances. Thus, the Association foregoes the potential benefit of a larger future collection in exchange for the certainty of a steady stream of immediate payments on the Account.
Reverse Stock Split
On May 11, 2020, our shareholders voted in favor of the approval of an amendment to our Certificate of Incorporation, in the event it is deemed advisable by our Board of Directors, to effect an additional reverse stock split of the Company’s issued and outstanding common stock at a ratio within the range of one-for-two (1:2) and one-for-ten (1:10), as determined by the Board of Directors. On April 21, 2021, our Board of Directors approved a one-for-five reverse split of the Company’s common stock. As a result, on May 7, 2021, the Company effected a common share consolidation (“Reverse Stock Split”) by means of a one-for-five () reverse split of its outstanding common stock, which resulted in a decrease in outstanding common stock to 5,414,296 shares. The Reverse Stock Split became effective on May 7, 2021 and the Company’s common stock began trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market on a split-adjusted basis on May 7, 2021. The Company has retroactively adjusted all share amounts and per share data herein to give effect to the Reverse Stock Split.
|Principles of Consolidation||
Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of LMFA and its wholly-owned subsidiaries: LM Funding, LLC; LMF October 2010 Fund, LLC; REO Management Holdings, LLC (including all 100% owned subsidiary limited liability companies); LM Funding of Colorado, LLC; LM Funding of Washington, LLC; LM Funding of Illinois, LLC; and LMF SPE #2, LLC and various single purpose limited liability corporations owned by REO Management Holdings, LLC which own various properties. It also includes LMFA Sponsor LLC (a 70.5% owned subsidiary). All significant intercompany balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
|Basis of Presentation||
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the annual
consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles have been condensed or omitted pursuant to those rules and regulations, although the Company believes that the disclosures made are adequate to make the information not misleading. The interim condensed consolidated financial statements as of September 30, 2021 and for the Three and Nine Months ended September 30, 2021 and September 30, 2020, respectively are unaudited. In the opinion of management, the interim condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary to provide a fair statement of the results for the interim periods. The accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2020, is derived from the audited consolidated financial statements presented in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for fiscal the year ended December 31, 2020.
|Digital Assets, net||
Digital Assets, net
We account for all digital assets as indefinite-lived intangible assets in accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other. We have ownership of and control over our digital assets and use third-party custodial services to secure it. The digital assets are initially recorded at cost and are subsequently remeasured on the consolidated balance sheet at cost, net of any impairment losses incurred since acquisition.
We determine the fair value of our digital assets in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement, based on quoted prices on the active exchange(s) that we have determined is the principal market for such assets (Level 1 inputs). We perform an analysis each quarter to identify whether events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that our digital assets are impaired. If the current carrying value of a digital asset exceeds the fair value so determined, an impairment loss has occurred with respect to those digital assets in the amount equal to the difference between their carrying values and the price determined.
The impaired digital assets are written down to their fair value at the time of impairment and this new cost basis will not be adjusted upward for any subsequent increase in fair value. Gains are not recorded until realized upon sale, at which point they are presented net of any impairment losses.
There is currently no specific guidance under GAAP or alternative accounting framework for the accounting for digital assets recognized as revenue or held, and management has exercised significant judgement in determining the appropriate accounting treatment. In the event authoritative guidance is enacted by the FASB, the Company may be required to change its policies, which could have an effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results from operations.
|Investment in Securities||
Investment in Securities
Investment in Securities includes investments in common stocks and convertible notes receivables. Investments in securities are reported at fair value with changes in unrecognized gains or losses included in other income on the income statement. The fair value of the convertible notes receivables are based on their classification as trading securities and as such are reported at fair value.
|Investments in Unconsolidated Entities||
Investments in Unconsolidated Entities
We account for investments in less than 50% owned and more than 20% owned entities using the equity method of accounting. Because we have elected the fair value option for these securities, unrealized holding gains and losses during the period are included in earnings.
|Loss Per Share||
Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic income (loss) per share is calculated as net income (loss) to common stockholders divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period (as adjusted to give effect to the Reverse Stock Split).
The Company issued approximately 2.3 million shares at various times during the Nine Months ended September 30, 2021 and has weighted average these new shares in calculating income (loss) per share. The Company also issued approximately 2.5 million shares at various times during the Nine Months ended September 30, 2020 and has weighted average these new shares in calculating income (loss) per share.
The Company has restated all share amounts to reflect the Reverse Stock Split.
Diluted income (loss) per share for the period equals basic loss per share as the effect of any convertible notes, stock based compensation awards or stock warrants would be anti-dilutive.
The anti-dilutive stock based compensation awards and convertible notes consisted of:
Disclosure of accounting policy for basis of accounting, or basis of presentation, used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS).
No definition available.
Disclosure of accounting policy regarding (1) the principles it follows in consolidating or combining the separate financial statements, including the principles followed in determining the inclusion or exclusion of subsidiaries or other entities in the consolidated or combined financial statements and (2) its treatment of interests (for example, common stock, a partnership interest or other means of exerting influence) in other entities, for example consolidation or use of the equity or cost methods of accounting. The accounting policy may also address the accounting treatment for intercompany accounts and transactions, noncontrolling interest, and the income statement treatment in consolidation for issuances of stock by a subsidiary.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/exampleRef
Disclosure of accounting policy for computing basic and diluted earnings or loss per share for each class of common stock and participating security. Addresses all significant policy factors, including any antidilutive items that have been excluded from the computation and takes into account stock dividends, splits and reverse splits that occur after the balance sheet date of the latest reporting period but before the issuance of the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef